From both these characteristics emerged name Anthophyta ("flowering plants") and Angiospermae ("seed sealed / closed"). Other names are also charged him was Magnoliophyta ("plant sekerabat with magnolia"). Angiospermae name is taken from the merger of two ancient Greek words: αγγειον (aggeion, "buffer" or "protector") and σπερμα (sperm, the plural for "seed") which was introduced by Paul Hermann in 1690. In most modern taxonomic system, this group now occupies a taxon as the divisio. However, the new classification based on APG (APG II classification system) placed in an klad who do not occupy a taxon and called angiosperms.
Flowering plants are distinguished from other groups based on apomorfi (inherited traits) which typically developed by this group. Most of these characteristics lies in the reproductive parts. Here are these characteristics:
Flower became the most obvious penciri and distinguish it from other seed plant groups. Flowers help these groups expand the ability of plant evolution and the pool (a prerequisite of living space or niche) ecological thus making it very suitable for life on land.
Stamen or stamens much lighter than the organ with similar functions in plants have seeds open (ie strobilus). Stamens have evolved to adapt to pollinators and to prevent self fertilization. Adaptation in this direction also expand the reach of space life.
* The size of the male gametophyte is very reduced
Male gametophyte is very reduced (located in the pollen and only consists of three cells) is very helpful to reduce the time between pollination, when pollen reaches the female organs, and fertilization. Normal time interval between the two phases are usually 12-24 hours. In gymnosperms the time required for it to reach a year.
* Karpela shut ovule
Karpela or tightly wrap the fruit leaves or ovulum ovule, thus preventing an unwanted conception. Sperm cells will be controlled by the pistil to fertilize the egg (ovum). After fertilization, karpela and some surrounding tissue will also develop into fruit. Fruit adaptive function by protecting the seeds from the germination of unwanted and help the process of spreading into the wider region.
* Size of highly reduced female gametophyte
As in the male gametophyte, female gametophyte size also greatly reduced to only seven cells and protected in the ovule. This smaller size helps speed up development of plant life. Only groups that have Angiospermae seasonal behavior in the process of life. This behavior makes it very easy to explore a much wider pool.
Endosperm formation in seeds is typical of Angiospermae are very supportive of adaptation because the embryo or seedling complete with food reserves in its development. Physiologically endosperm also strengthen the absorption of nutrients needed seed will plant the young in its development.
At first, the name meant Angiospermae by Paul Hermann (1690) for all flowering plants with seeds enclosed in the capsule, and disputed with gymnosperms as flowering plants with fruit achene or berkarpela split. In a sense, the whole fruits or parts thereof are considered as seed and "open". The second term was used by Carolus Linnaeus with the same sense but are used as the names of Didynamia class.
When Robert Brown in 1827 found that ovule completely open (not shielded) in the cycads and conifers, he gave the name of gymnosperms for both groups of this plant. In 1851 Wilhelm Hofmeister discovered the changes that occur in the embryo sac of flowering plants (pollination of double). The result of this discovery makes gymnosperms as a class that is completely different from dicots, and the term began to be applied to all Angiospermae seed plants are not the two groups mentioned Robert Brown. It is this last notion that still survive today.
In a modern taxonomic system, a group of flowering plants placed in different taxa. Angiospermae addition, this group also called Anthophyta ("flowering plants"). Wettstein system and the Engler system puts Angiospermae subdivisio level. Reveal Systems include all flowering plants in subdivisio Magnoliophytina, but on the issue of further separating them into Magnoliopsida, Liliopsida, and Rosopsida. Takhtajan system and Cronquist systems incorporate this group into the level divisio Magnoliophyta name. Dahlgren system and Thorne system (1992) used the name Magnoliopsida and put it on grade level. Currently, the most recent classification systems, such as the APG system (1998) and APG II system (2003), no longer make it as a separate taxon group but as a clade without a formal botanical name with the name of the angiosperms (the system uses the names of languages English or diinggriskan to unofficial names)
Internal division (taxonomy)
Internal classification of this group experienced many changes. Classification system of Cronquist (1981) is still widely used but began to question the accuracy of the phylogeny, especially because it contradicts the results of molecular investigations. General agreement about how the flowering plants grouped began to be achieved since the "Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), issued in 1998 and updated in 2003 as the APG II classification system.
Cronquist system of classification of flowering plants split into two groups: Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. Name another pemeri as permitted in Article 16 of ICBN is Dicotyledoneae (dicots) and Monocotyledoneae (monocots) on the basis of history and shows a fairly easy feature to be observed, although not always the case: dicotyledonous plants have two leaves the institution while monocot plants have one leaf institution.
APG system, which uses a concept and a lot of wear kladistika statistical grouping methods (clustering) and enter the molecular data, found that the monocots are a monophyletic group or holofiletik, and named monocots (the plural of monocot), but it was not to be dicotyledonous (referred to as groups are parafiletik). Nevertheless there are a monophyletic group of dicotyledonous named eudicots or tricolpates. Eudicot name means "true dicots" because it showed the usual characteristics expressed as a characteristic of dicots, like a flower with four or five crowns of flowers and four or five petals. The remainder of this separation, which remains parafiletik, commonly known as paleodicots (paleo-means "ancient" or "ancient") for easy reference.
Investigations using the phylogeny using molecular data to date have found eight major groups of flowering plants, the monocots, eudicots, Amborellaceae, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales, Chloranthales, Ceratophyllales, and magnoliids.
Species diversity and the benefits
Flowering plant species is estimated to range between 250,000 to 400,000 which can be grouped at least 402 tribes (based on estimated in the APG II system). APG system of 1998 states there are 462 tribes. Monocot cover about 23% of the entire species and the "true dicots" (eudicots) covers 75% of the entire species.
Ten of the tribe of plants according to the number of species are as follows:
1. Asteraceae or Compositae (tribe kenikir-kenikiran): 23,600 species
2. Orchidaceae (orchid tribe-anggrekan): 21,950
3. Fabaceae or Leguminosae (legumes tribe): 19,400
4. Rubiaceae (tribe coffee-copies): 13,183
5. Poaceae, Glumiflorae, or Gramineae (grass tribe): 10,035
6. Lamiaceae or Labiatae (tribe patchouli-nilaman): 7173
7. Euphorbiaceae (tribe kastuba-kastubaan): 5735
8. Cyperaceae (tribe puzzle-tekian): 4350
9. Malvaceae (cotton-Kapasan tribe): 4225
10. Araceae (taro-talasan tribe): 4025
Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Araceae are monocot.
The ten tribes above cover a wide range of plant species important in human life, whether in agriculture, forestry and industry. Tribe grasses is clearly the most important interest because it produces a variety of sources of food energy for humans and livestock from rice, wheat, corn, barley, oat, barley, sugarcane, and sorghum. Legumes tribe occupies the second most important place, as a source of vegetable protein and vegetable and various other cultural roles (wood, dyes, and toxins). Patchouli-member tribe nilaman many plants producing essential oils and ingredients of medicines.
Some other important interest in human life is
* Solanaceae (eggplant tribe), as an important food source especially vegetables
* Cucurbitaceae (gourd tribe, as an important source of vegetable
* Brassicaceae or Cruciferae (mustard tribe), as a source of vegetable oil and food important
* Alliaceae (onion tribe), as an important source of seasoning vegetables
* Piperaceae (betel tribe), as an important source of spices.
* Arecaceae or Palmae (tribe nut-proposal), as an essential life-supporting agrarian society tropics
* Rutaceae (orange tribe), Rosaceae (rose tribe), and Myrtaceae (guava-jambuan tribe) produces many important fruits.
Flowering plants is also a supplier of natural resources in the form of wood, paper, fiber (eg cotton, kapok, henep, sisal, manila fiber), drugs (digitalis, camphor), decorative plants (indoor and open), and various long list of usability other.